Perubahan Karakteristik Bahan Pangan pada Keripik Buah dengan Metode Freeze Drying (Review)

Nur Ahmad Habibi, Sarah Fathia, Citra Tristi Utami

Abstract


Food processing is changing from thermal to non thermal process nowadays for non thermal process could maintain food quality including sensory and nutrition value. Freeze drying is a non thermal drying method using low temperature. The water content of the product is frozen from the water phase to ice phase and into gas phase (sublimation process) to control the pressure and temperature. There are some changes in food characteristic in fruit chips processing using freeze drying method In the physical charcteristic, there are geometry, mechanic, optical, and other physical value changes. In the physical charcteristic, geometry value, mechanic value, optical value, and other physical value changes, while in sensory characteristic a freeze drying method could maintain food colour, flavour,  texture and odor(aroma). Freeze drying could inhibit bacteria growth but could not kill the spores in microbiological characteristics. Furthermore, freeze drying could maintain vitamin, mineral and active compound in the product instead of thermal drying process.

Keywords : freeze drying, non thermal, sensory, chemistry, physic, microbiology


ABSTRAK

Proses pengolahan makanan saat ini beralih dari proses termal ke proses non termal. Hal ini disebabkan karena proses non termal dapat mempertahankan mutu pangan didalamnya, meliputi sensorik dan nilai gizinya. Pengeringan beku/freeze drying merupakan metode pengeringan non termal yang dilakukan dengan menggunakan suhu yang rendah. Kandungan air didalam produk dalam fase air dibekukan  menjadi fase padat (es) kemudian diubah menjadi fase udara dengan menggunakan prinsip sublimasi dengan mengendalikan suhu dan tekanannya. Terdapat perubahan karakteristik bahan pangan pada pengolahan keripik buah dengan metode freeze drying. Dari sifat fisik, meliputi perubahan sifat geometri, sifat mekanik, sifat optik dan sifat lainnya. Dilihat dari karakteristik sensorik proses pengeringan beku dinilai dapat mempertahkan sifat sensorik meliputi warna, rasa, tekstur dan aroma. Metode freeze drying dinilai dapat menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri, namun tidak dapat membunuh spora bakteri apabila dilihat dari karakteristik mikrobiologinya. Selanjutnya dari karakteristik kimia, diketahui metode freeze drying dinilai lebih baik dalam mempertahankan vitamin, mineral, dan bahan aktif di dalam produk dibanding dengan metode pengeringan dengan termal. 

Kata Kunci :freeze drying, non termal, sensorik, kimia, fisik, mikrobiologi



References


Oguntibeju OO, Truter JE, Esterhuyse JA. The Role of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in Human Health and Disease Prevention. Diabetes Mellitus – Insights and Perspectives.2013.DOI: 10.5772/50109.

Barth M, Hankinson TR, Zhuang H, Breidt F. Microbiological Spoilage of Fruits and Vegetables. Compendium of the Microbiological Spoilage of Foods and Beverages.2009.DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4419-0826-1_6.

Rawat S. Food Spoilage: Microorganisms and their prevention. Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research. 5(4):47-56;2015.

Moses JA, Norton T, Alagusundaram K, Tiwari BK. Novel Drying Techniques for the Food Industry. Food Engineering Reviews. 6(3):43-55;2014.10.1007/s12393-014-9078-7.

Liapis AI, Bruttini R. Freeze Drying : Handbook of Industrial Drying (edited by A.S. Mujumdar).259-83.;2007.

Hariyadi P. Freeze Drying Technology: for Better Quality & Flavor of Dried Products. FoodRev. VIII((2));2013.

BSN. SNI 01-4269-1996 Keripik nangka. Badan Standarisasi Nasional Republik Indonesia.1996.

Gaidhani KA, Harwalkar M, Bhambere D, Nirgude PS. Lyophilization / Freeze Drying – A Review. WJPR. 4(8);2015.

Shukla S. Freeze Drying Process: A Review. IJPSR. 2(12):3061-8;2011.DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.2(12).3061-68.

Nireesha GR, Divya L, Sowmya C, N.Venkateshan, Babu MN, V.Lavakumar. Lyophilization/Freeze Drying - An Review. IJNTPS. 3(4);2013.

Wolfe CW. Packaging Freeze-Dried Foods. Sage Journal. 5(1);1964.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/001088046400500120.

Marques LG, Prado MM, Freire JT. Rehydration characteristics of freeze-dried tropical fruits. Food Science and Technology. 421232-1237;2009.DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2009.02.012.

Liliana S-C, Diana PV-M, Alfredo AA. Structural, physical, functional and nutraceutical changes of freeze-dried fruit. African Journal of Biotechnology. 14(6):442-50;2015.10.5897/ajb2014.14189.

Oikonomopoulou VP, Krokida MK, Karathanos VT. The influence of freeze drying conditions on microstructural changes of food products. Procedia Food Science. 1:647-54;2011.10.1016/j.profoo.2011.09.097.

Ceballos AM, Giraldo GI, Orrego CE. Effect of freezing rate on quality parameters of freeze dried soursop fruit pulp. Journal of Food Engineering. 111(2):360-5;2012.10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2012.02.010.

Harnkarnsujarit N, Charoenrein S. Influence of collapsed structure on stability of β-carotene in freeze-dried mangoes. Food Research International. 44(10):3188-94;2011.10.1016/j.foodres.2011.08.008.

Yan Z, Sousa-Gallagher MJ, Oliveira FAR. Shrinkage and porosity of banana, pineapple and mango slices during air-drying. Journal of Food Engineering. 84(3):430-40;2008.10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2007.06.004.

Cui Z-W, Li C-Y, Song C-F, Song Y. Combined Microwave-Vacuum and Freeze Drying of Carrot and Apple Chips. Drying Technology. 26(12):1517-23;2008.DOI: 10.1080/07373930802463960.

Alves CCdO, Resende JV, Prado MET, RibeiroCruvine RS. The effects of added sugars and alcohols on the induction of crystallization and the stability of the freeze-dried peki (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) fruit pulps. LWT Food Sci. 43(6):934-41;2010.DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2010.01.029.

Castilhos d, Betiol, Carvalho d, Telis-Romero. Experimental study of physical and rheological properties of grape juice using different temperatures and concentrations. Part II: Merlot. Food Res Int. 105:905–12;2018.DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2017.12.026.

Shamsudin R, Ling CS, Adzahan NM, Daud WRW. Rheological properties of ultraviolet-irradiated and thermally pasteurized Yankee pineapple juice J Food Eng Rev. 116(2):548-53;2013.DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2012.12.031.

Shishehgarha F, Makhlouf J, Ratti C. Freeze-Drying Characteristics Of Strawberries. Drying technology. 20(1):131-45;2002.DOI: 10.1081/DRT-120001370.

Yurdugu S. An evaluation of the retention of quality characteristics in fresh and freeze-dried alpine strawberries. Food Science. 43: 865–70;2008.doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2007.01533.x.

Ceballos AM, Giraldo GI, Orrego CE. Effect of freezing rate on quality parameters of freeze-dried soursop fruit pulp. J Food Eng Rev. 111(2):360-5;2012.DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2012.02.010.

Draudt HN, Huang I-Y. Effect of Moisture Content of Freeze-Dried Peaches and Bananas on Changes during Storage Related to Oxidative and Carbonyl-Amine Browning. J Agric Food Chem. 14(2):170-6;1966.DOI: 10.1021/jf60144a021.

Serna-Cock L, Vargas-Muñoz DP, Aponte AA. Structural, physical, functional and nutraceutical changes of freeze-dried fruit. African Journal of Biotechnology. 14(6):442-50;2015.DOI: 10.5897/AJB2014.14189.

Valentina V, Pratiwi A, Hsiao P, Tseng H, Hsieh J, Chen C. Sensorial Characterization of Foods Before and After Freeze-drying. Austin Food Sci. 1(6):1027;2016.

Martínez-Navarrete N, Salvador A, Oliva C, Camacho MM. Influence of biopolymers and freeze-drying shelf temperature on the quality of a mandarin snack. Lwt. 99:57-61;2019.10.1016/j.lwt.2018.09.040.

Rahman, Das R, Hoque, Zzaman. Effect of freeze drying on antioxidant activity and phenolic contents of Mango (Mangifera indica). International Food Research Journal. 22(2):613-7;2015.

Priyanka P, Rajitha S, Lloyd T, Martha V. Effect of Drying Techniques on Antioxidant Capacity of Guava Fruit. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 7, 544-554.;2016.

Vinod K, Suneetha K, Sucharitha K. Freeze Drying- a Novel Processing for Fruit Powders. International Journal of Food and Nutritional Science 01(01).2012.

Djekic I, Tomic N, Bourdoux S, Spilimbergo S, Smigic N, Udovicki B, et al. Comparison of three types of drying (supercritical CO 2 , air and freeze) on the quality of dried apple – Quality index approach. Lwt. 94:64-72;2018.10.1016/j.lwt.2018.04.029.

Morgan CA, Herman N, White PA, Vesey G. Preservation of micro-organisms by drying; a review. Journal of microbiological methods. 66(2):183-93;2006.10.1016/j.mimet.2006.02.017.

Syamaladevi RM, Tang J, Villa-Rojas R, Sablani S, Carter B, Campbell G. Influence of Water Activity on Thermal Resistance of Microorganisms in Low-Moisture Foods: A Review. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 15(2):353-70;2016.10.1111/1541-4337.12190.

Bourdoux S, Li D, Rajkovic A, Devlieghere F, Uyttendaele M. Performance of Drying Technologies to Ensure Microbial Safety of Dried Fruits and Vegetables. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 15(6):1056-66;2016.10.1111/1541-4337.12224.

Passamani FR, Hernandes T, Lopes NA, Bastos SC, Santiago WD, Cardoso M, et al. Effect of temperature, water activity, and pH on growth and production of ochratoxin A by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius from Brazilian grapes. Journal of food protection. 77(11):1947-52;2014.10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-13-495.

Yu J. Impacts of Different Drying Methods on Mold Viability and Ochratoxin A Content of Grape Pomace. International Journal of Applied Agricultural Sciences. 4(2):35;2018.10.11648/j.ijaas.20180402.12.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.32487/jst.v5i2.634

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


View My Stats