Perubahan Karakteristik Bahan Pangan pada Keripik Buah dengan Metode Freeze Drying (Review)

Nur Ahmad Habibi, Sarah Fathia, Citra Tristi Utami


Food processing is changing from thermal to non thermal process nowadays for non thermal process could maintain food quality including sensory and nutrition value. Freeze drying is a non thermal drying method using low temperature. The water content of the product is frozen from the water phase to ice phase and into gas phase (sublimation process) to control the pressure and temperature. There are some changes in food characteristic in fruit chips processing using freeze drying method In the physical charcteristic, there are geometry, mechanic, optical, and other physical value changes. In the physical charcteristic, geometry value, mechanic value, optical value, and other physical value changes, while in sensory characteristic a freeze drying method could maintain food colour, flavour,  texture and odor(aroma). Freeze drying could inhibit bacteria growth but could not kill the spores in microbiological characteristics. Furthermore, freeze drying could maintain vitamin, mineral and active compound in the product instead of thermal drying process.

Keywords : freeze drying, non thermal, sensory, chemistry, physic, microbiology


Proses pengolahan makanan saat ini beralih dari proses termal ke proses non termal. Hal ini disebabkan karena proses non termal dapat mempertahankan mutu pangan didalamnya, meliputi sensorik dan nilai gizinya. Pengeringan beku/freeze drying merupakan metode pengeringan non termal yang dilakukan dengan menggunakan suhu yang rendah. Kandungan air didalam produk dalam fase air dibekukan  menjadi fase padat (es) kemudian diubah menjadi fase udara dengan menggunakan prinsip sublimasi dengan mengendalikan suhu dan tekanannya. Terdapat perubahan karakteristik bahan pangan pada pengolahan keripik buah dengan metode freeze drying. Dari sifat fisik, meliputi perubahan sifat geometri, sifat mekanik, sifat optik dan sifat lainnya. Dilihat dari karakteristik sensorik proses pengeringan beku dinilai dapat mempertahkan sifat sensorik meliputi warna, rasa, tekstur dan aroma. Metode freeze drying dinilai dapat menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri, namun tidak dapat membunuh spora bakteri apabila dilihat dari karakteristik mikrobiologinya. Selanjutnya dari karakteristik kimia, diketahui metode freeze drying dinilai lebih baik dalam mempertahankan vitamin, mineral, dan bahan aktif di dalam produk dibanding dengan metode pengeringan dengan termal. 

Kata Kunci :freeze drying, non termal, sensorik, kimia, fisik, mikrobiologi


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